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Nagaland (Hindi: नागालैंड) pronunciation(help·info) is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. It
Nagaland
India
Coordinates: show location on an interactive map25°24′N 94°05′E / 25.4, 94.08
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 16,579km²(6,401sqmi)
Capital Kohima
Largest city Dimapur
District(s) 11
Population
Density
1,988,636(24th)
• 120/km² (311/sqmi)
Language(s) English
Governor Kateekal
Chief Minister Shri. Neiphiu Rio
Established 1963-12-01
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (60)
ISO abbreviation IN-NL
Website: nagaland.nic.in
Seal of Nagaland
Seal of Nagaland
borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Myanmar to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur. With a population of nearly two million people, it has a total area of 16,579 km. - making it one of the smallest states of India.

History

The earliest references to Nagaland are found in the era of Mahabharata. Several characters from the region, such as Princess Ulupi and Prince Iravan, were referred to as Naga people in the Mahabharata. Ulūpī or Uloopi was one of Arjuna's wives. While Arjuna was in Manipur, the Naga princess became infatuated with him. She caused him to be abducted after he had been intoxicated with potent concoctions and had him conveyed to her realm in the netherworld. There, Ulūpī induced an unwilling Arjuna to take her for a wife. She was the mother of Iravan. She later restored Arjuna to the lamenting Chitrāngadā, one of Arjuna's other wives. She played a major part in the upbringing of Arjuna and Chitrangada's son, Babruvahana. She was also able to restore Arjuna to life after he was slain in battle by Babruvahana. When Arjuna was given a curse by the Vasus, Bheeshma’s brothers after he killed Bheeshma in the Kurushtra war, she redeemed him Arjuna from his curse. Iravat or Iravan (Sanskrit: इरवन), was the son of Pandava prince Arjuna and Naga princess Ulupi. He fought on the side of the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra war and was killed by the Rakshasa Alumvusha on the eighth day of the war. The word Naga is perhaps derived from Nag or believers of snake god. The people were originally referred to as Chingmee (Hill People) or Hao (Tribes) in the history of Manipur.
The early history of Nagaland is the customs, economic activities of the Naga tribes. The people were originally referred to as Chingmee (Hill People) or Hao (Tribes) in the history of Manipur. The Naga tribes had socio-economic and political links with tribes in Assam and Burma - (officially called Myanmar by the current ruling military junta)even today a large population of Naga inhabits Assam. Following an invasion in 1816, the area along with Assam came under direct rule of Burma. This period was noted for the oppressive rule and turmoil in Assam and Nagaland. When the British East India Company took control of Assam in 1826, they steadily expanded their domain over modern Nagaland. By 1892, all of modern Nagaland except the Tuensang area in the northeast was governed by the British. It was politically amalgamated into Assam. The Christian missionaries played an important part in transforming Nagaland. Many Naga tribes embraced Christianity, in particular the Baptist faith. After the independence of India in 1947, the area remained a part of the province of Assam. Nationalist activities arose amongst Naga tribes, who demanded a political union of their ancestral and native groups damaged government and civil infrastructure, and attacked government officials and Indians from other states. The Union government sent the Indian Army in 1955, to restore order. In 1957, the Government began diplomatic talks with representatives of Naga tribes, and the Naga Hills district of Assam and the Tuensang frontier were united in a single political entity that became a Union territory - directly administered by the Central government with a large degree of autonomy. This was not satisfactory to the tribes, however, and soon agitation and violence increased across the state - included attacks on Army and government institutions, as well as civil disobedience and non-payment of taxes. In July 1960, a further political accord was reached at the Naga People's Convention that Nagaland should become a constituent and self-governing state in the Indian union. Statehood was officially granted in 1963 and the first state-level democratic elections were held in 1964. Insurgencies were quelled in the early 1980s. Violence had re-erupted and there was conflict between rebel group factions till the late 1990s. On 25 July, 1997, Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral announced that the Government after talks with Isaac group of the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) declared a cease-fire or cessation of operations with effect from 1st August, 1997 for a period of three months. The cease-fire has since been extended.[1]

[edit] Geography and climate

Nagaland is largely a mountainous state. The Naga Hills rise from the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam to about 2,000 feet and rise further to the southeast, as high as 6,000 feet. Mount Saramati at an elevation of 12,552level is the state's highest peak - this is where the Naga Hills merge with the Patkai Range in Myanmar. Rivers such as the Doyang and Dhiku to the north, the Barak river in the southwest and the Chindwin river of Myanmar in the southeast, dissect the entire state. Nagaland is rich in flora and fauna. About one-sixth of Nagaland is under the cover of tropical and sub-tropical evergreen forests - including palms, bamboo and rattan as well as timber and mahogany forests. While some forest areas have been cleared for jhum - cultivation - many scrub forests, high grass, reeds and secondary dogs, pangolins, porcupines, elephants, leopards, bears, many species of monkeys, sambar, deers, oxen and buffaloes thrive across the state's forests. The Great Indian Hornbill is one of the most famous birds found in the state. Nagaland has a largely monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Annual rainfall averages around 70-100 inches - concentrated in the months of May to September. Temperatures range from 70 degrees to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. In winter, temperatures don't generally drop below 39 degrees Fahrenheit, but frost is common at high elevations.

[edit] Culture and people

Nagaland girl
Nagaland - Mannse
Nagaland girl
The tribes of Nagaland are,Sumi,Lothas, Angami, Ao, Chakhesang , Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Phom, Pochury, Rengma,Sangtam, Yimchungru, Zeliang of which the Angamis, Aos, Lothas and Sumis are the largest Naga tribes. Tribe and Clan traditions and loyalties play an important part in the life of Nagas. Weaving is a traditional art handed down through generations in Nagaland. Each of the major tribes has its own unique designs and colors, producing shawls, shoulder bags, decorative spears, table mats, wood carvings and bamboo works. Tribal dances of the Nagas give an insight into the inborn reticence of the people. War dances and dances belonging to distinctive tribes are a major art form in Nagaland. Some of these are Moatsu, Sekrenyi, Tuluni and Tokhu Emong.

[edit] Language

Nagas speak 60 different dialects belonging to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. Nagamese, a variant language form of Assamese and local dialects is the most widely spoken market language. Every tribe has their own mother tongue language but communicate with each other in Nagamese. As such Nagamese is not a mother tongue of any of the tribes and nor is it a written language. English, the official state language is widely spoken in official circles and is the medium for education in Nagaland.

[edit] Religion

Christianity is the predominant religion of Nagaland. The census of 2001 recorded the state's Christian population at 1,790,349 (90.02% of the state's population), making it one of the three Christian-majority states in India, and the only state where Christians form 90% of the population. The state has a very high church attendance rate in both urban and rural areas. The largest of Asia's churches dominate the skylines of Kohima, Dimapur and Mokokchung. Among Christians, Baptists are the predominant group constituting more than 75% of the state's population. Nagaland is known as "The most populated Baptist state in the world". The state's population is 1.988 million, out of which 90.02% are Christians[2]. 75% of the state's population profess the Baptist faith, thus making it more Baptist than Mississippi (in the southern United States), where 52% of its population is Baptist.[citation needed] Catholics, Revivalists, and Pentecostals are the other Christian denomination numbers. Catholics are found in significant numbers in parts of Wokha district as also in the urban areas of Kohima and Dimapur. Hinduism and Islam are minority religions in state, at 7.7% and 1.8% of the population respectively [3]. A small minority, less than 0.3%, still practise the traditional religions and are mainly concentrated in Peren and the Eastern districts.

[edit] Sobriquets/ Nicknames

  • "Gateway of Nagaland", "The Commercial Hub (of Nagaland)", "Melting Pot" - Dimapur
  • "Highland City", "Misty City" - Kohima
  • "Cultural capital (of Nagaland)", "Picture perfect city", "Aomolung",- Mokokchung
  • "Rice Bowls of Nagaland", "Land of milk and pig fat" - Jalukie valley; Tsurang-Changki valley
  • "Serpentine town"- Tuensang

[edit] Administration

District map of Nagaland
Nagaland - Mannse
District map of Nagaland
The Governor of Nagaland is the constitutional head of state, representative of the President of India. He possesses largely ceremonial responsibilities. A 60-member Vidhan Sabha is the state of ministers, led by a Chief minister - all elected members of legislature - forms the government executive. Unlike most Indian states, Nagaland has been granted a great degree of state autonomy, as well as special powers and autonomy for Naga tribes to conduct their own affairs. Each tribe has a hierarchy of councils - at the village, range and tribal levels dealing with local disputes. There is a special regional council for the Tuensang district, elected by the tribes of the area. The state is divided into eleven districts.
Districts District Headquarters

[edit] Urban centres

[edit] Major cities and towns

[edit] Urban Agglomerations

There are four urban agglomeration areas with population of more than 40,000 in the state which are: Rank↓ Metropolitan/Agglomeration Area↓ District↓ 2001 Population Census↓
1 Dimapur-Chumukedima Dimapur District 230,106
2 Greater Kohima Kohima District 99,795
3 Mokokchung Metropolitan Area Mokokchung District 60,161
4 Greater Wokha Wokha District 43,089

[edit] Major (Non-District Headquarter) towns

[edit] Economy

[edit] Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Nagaland at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 1,027
1985 2,730
1990 6,550
1995 18,140
2000 36,790
Nagaland's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $1.4 billion in current prices. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in Nagaland, with more than 90% of the population employed crops include rice, corn, millets, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and fibres. However, Nagaland still depends on the import of food supplies from other states. The widespread practice of jhum - clearing for cultivation - has led to soil erosion and loss of fertility, particularly in the eastern districts. Only the Angami and Chakesang tribes in the Kohima and Phek districts use terracing techniques. And most of the Aos, Lothas and Zeliangs in Mokokchung, Wokha and Peren districts respectively cultivates in the many valleys of the district. Forestry is also an important source of income. Cottage industries such as weaving, woodwork and pottery are also an important source of revenue. Tourism is important, but largely limited due to insurgency since the last five decades.

[edit] Transportation

The railway network in the state is minimal. The length of broad gauge lines is 7.63 km, while that of the metre gauge lines is only 5.22 km. The length of National Highway roads is 365.38 km and state roads is 1094 km. There is one airport in dimapur and another is being planned for Kohima, the state capital.

[edit] Railways

Railway: North East Frontier Railway
  • Broad Gauge-7.63 km
  • Metre Gauge-5.22 km
  • Total-12.85km
[Data Source: N. F. Railway, CME Office, Guwahati-781011]

[edit] Highways

National Highways with the towns served: National Highways: Length: 365.38 km
  • NH-61 - Kohima, Wokha, Tseminyu, Wokha, Mokokchung, Changtongya, Tuli
  • NH-39 - Kohima, Dimapur, Chumukedima, Medziphema
  • NH-36 - Dimapur
State Highways Length: 1094.60 km
  • Chakabama-Mokokchung Via Chazuba and Zunheboto
  • Kohima-Meluri
  • Mokokchung-Mariani
  • Mokokchung-Tuensang
  • Namtola-Mon
  • Tuensang-Mon-Naginimora
  • Tuensang-Kiphiri-Meluri
  • Wokha-Merapani Road
[Source: Office of The Chief Engineer, P.W.D., Kohima, Nagaland] Airways
  • Name of the airport - Dimapur
  • Distance from the State Capital - 70.0 km
  • Town Nearest to the Airport - Dimapur
For further details, refer Dimapur airport

[edit] Newspapers

1. Nagaland Post - http://www.nagalandpost.com
2. The North East Herald - http://thenortheastherald.com/
3. Nagaland Page - http://www.nagalandpage.co.in/
4. The Eastern Mirror
5. Tir Yimyim (in Ao language)- http://www.tiryimyim.com .
6. Ao Milen (in Ao language}.
7. Capi (in Tenyidie language).
8. Tenyi Ralha (in Tenyidie language).
90. Sinlung News - http://www.sinlung.com

[edit] References

[edit] External links

[edit] See also

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